Conservation Concern Species

           This sections gives resource managers and researchers information regarding 195 Red Listed Medicinal Plants species that requires conservation measures. Details regarding botanical name, IUCN threat category, distribution data, digitized maps, scanned herbarium images, trade details are included. For selected species, Taxon Sheets /profiles with threat assessment details based on Conservation and Management Prioritisation workshops are being provided as ready reference. For more information, write to

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No. of species 195

Plant species
Botanical NameAegle marmelos (L.) CORREA EX. SCHULTZ
Threat StatusVulnerable / Regional
Used InAyurveda, Folk, Homeopathy, Tibetian, Unani and Sidha

This species is globally distributed across Indo-Malesian region and cultivated in Africa. In India, it is reported to occur in the Sub-Himalayan tracts from Jhelum eastward and also southward to the Central and Southern India. In the Peninsular India, it is restricted in the dry and moist deciduous forests of the Eastern and Western Ghats. It is present in the states of Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Tripura, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.In India, the natural presence of this species is restricted to the tropical areas receiving a mean annual rainfall of 500-2000 mm.
(2 images)
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Common Uses
The fruit, leaves and root of Bilva is used in the form of powder, juice and decoction to treat diarrhoea, sprue, piles, oedema, jaundice, vomiting, obesity, deafness, eye diseases, paediatric diseases, fever and as a rejuvinative.Diarrhoea:1.To treat diarrhoea by taking tender fruits of bilva with honey or butter milk (10-20 gms) (CS.Ci.19.113).2.In case of diarrhoea with blood, tender fruits of bilva mixed with liquid jaggery, honey and oil should be taken. (10-20 gms) (SS. U.40.119).3.Decoction of bilva and amra (Mangifera indica) (seed) mixed with honey and sugar checks vomiting and diarrhoea (10-15 gms)(VM.3.30).Jaundice Intake of bilva leaves (juice) mixed with trikatu (piper longum, piper nigrum, zingiber officinale )alleviates jaundice, (20 ml)(CS.Ci.16.59).Vomiting:1.Cooled decoction of bilva or guduci (Tinospora cordifolia)added with honey should be taken in case of vomiting (40-60 ml) (VM.15.15; BP.Ci.17.25).2.Perched paddy mixed with sugar and dissolved in decoction of bilva root (bark) should administered to the child. It checks vomiting and diarrhoea (40 60ml) (BS balaroga.49).
Aegle marmelos
Aegle marmelos
Conservation Concern Details
State Threat StatesWith Assessment year Trade
Andhra PradeshVU2001High
Tamil NaduVU1998High
(No. of Names)
Vernacular Name
Arabic (3)safarjale-hindi, safarjalehindi, shul
English (5)bael fruit, bel-tree, beli, bengal quince, golden apple
Hindi (15)bael, bael sripal, beel, beeley, beelgiri, bel, bel patri, bel-patra, bello, bil, bilva, si-phal, siri-phal, sirphal, sri-phal
Kannada (20)baelada mara, belapatre, belavina, belavina mara, bellapatre, bilapatri, bilapatri-hannu, biliptari, billadu, bilpathre, bilpatre, bilpatri, bilpattiri, bilva, bilva pathre, bilva patre, bilvapatre, byaalada hannu, kumbala, malura
Malayalam (10)covalam, covalum, koovalam, kovalam, kulakam, kuvalam, kuvalap-pazham, kuvvalam, mavilavu, vilvam
Marathi (5)bael, baela, bel, bili, vel
Persian (3)safarjale-hindi, safarjalehindi, shul
Sanskrit (63)adhararuha, aritaki, asholam, atimangaliya, balva, bilva, bilvah, bilvam, bilvaphalam, bivalva, duraruha, gandhagarbha, gandhapatra, gohki, granthila, hridyagandha, kantakadhya, kantaki, kapitana, karkatavha, lakshmiphala, mahakapitha, mahakapithakhya, mahaphala, mahaphalah, malura, malurah, mangalya, nilamallika, patrashreshtha, pitaphala, putivata, sadaphala, sailusa, sailusah, salatuh, samirasara, sandilya, sandilyah, sangrahi, satyadharma, satyaphala, shailapatra, shailusha, shalatu, shalya, shandilya, shivadruma, shiveshtha, shriphala, sitanuna, sivadrumah, sriphal, sriphala, sriphalah, sunitika, tripatra, trishakhapatra, trishikha, vilva, vilvah, vilvaka, vilvapesika
Tamil (114)akuvakananmeccumilai, alluram, alukam#, alukam@, aluvigam, aluvikam, anincil, aranpucaikkerramaram2, arcanaiyati, bilva, bilvam, capalukam, catapalam2, catippattiram2, cattal2, cirettamaruntati, ciripalam, ciripalam2, ciripalamaram, cirivirutcam, civankam, civattirumaram, civattiruvam, civatturumam, iyalbudi, iyalpu@, iyalpupati, iyalputi2, kantapalai2, kantapattiram2, karkatam, karuvila1, karuvilakikamaram, karuvilakitam, karuvilam1, kentakakarpam, kentapattiram2, koovilam, kovaritaki2, kucapi, kuvilai, kuvilam, kuvilam palam, kuvinam, makakapittam, makapalai, makapalam 5, makapittam, makavali, makavalimaram, makavalli, maluram, maluramaram, maruntirkati, mavilamaram, mavilangai, mikuttikam, mikuttikamaram, mikuttiyal 2, mirutiyal, mirutiyam, mirutiyamaram, mulamukkanai, munkalantavirutcatti, mutantamuli, muvilaicci, navacikaram, nilamalikkam, nimilaiccattumuli, ninmalli, nirmatalam, pacunakam, pacunakamaram, pattiracirettam, pattiri3, piracinapanacam#, piracinapanacam@, pitapalam, pukku 2, pukkuli, pukkulimaram, putiiratam, putimarutam, putimarutamaram, putivakam, putivatam, puttiru 2, tiricakam, tiricakamaram, tiricam, tiricikam, tirucam, vailavam, vanamuli, vatacaram, vatam, vatam#, vatamaram, viccanniyam, viccanniyamaram, vil, villai, villankam, villuvam, villvam, vilva, vilva-pazham, vilvam, vilvappu, vilwam, virinikamaram, virinka, virutiyakentam, viyalputi
Telugu (16)bilva, bilva-pandu, bilvachettu, bilvamu, bilvapandu, maalaaramu, maluramu, maraedu, maredi, maredu, sailushamu, sandiliyamu, shandiliyamu, shreephalamu, sriphalamu, valaga
Tibetan (4)bi lva, bil ba, bil ba (d), ka-bed
Urdu (8)baelphal, bel, bel kham, belgiri, belgiri (bael), biligiris, chalbel, guda belgiri taza

Parts Used
(No. of  Names)
Trade Name
Not recorded (15) bael, bael (chakka), bael (guda), bel giri, bel ki chhal, bel mool, belgiri, belguda, belmool, biligarbha, bilwa, bilva mool, bilva, belgiri, koovalathila
PULP (3) bail guda, belgiri, bilpathra majja
ROOTS (3) bel mool, belmul, bilwamool
FRUIT (4) belgiri, bilgiri, koovalakkayu, vilvam
FRUITS (2) belgiri, bilva
POWDER (1) belgiri
FRUIT PULP (2) bil kath, bilva
ROOT (2) bilpatre beru, vilvam
BARK (1) bilva
LEAVES (1) bilva
ROOT & LEAF (1) koovalam
ROOT&LEAF (1) koovalam
LEAF (1) vilvam

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